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How do we face the US tariff increase?
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How do we face the US tariff increase?

Views: 4     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2018-11-01      Origin: www.fuchun-casting.com

In 2018, international trade entered a period of trade protectionism.

In January, the U.S. government decided to impose high protective tariffs on imports of solar panels and washing machines, and in February, the U.S. Department of Commerce finally decided to impose high anti-dumping and countervailing duties on imports of Chinese aluminum foil.In early March Trump announced a 25% tariff on imported steel and a 10% tariff on aluminium, throwing a blockbuster bomb on international trade and global financial markets.


What is the impact of the US steel and aluminum trade war on China?

Although China is the world's largest steel producer, accounting for nearly half of the world's total steel output, but the direct export of steel to the United States is very small. In 2017, the export of finished steel products is less than 1 million tons, accounting for about 3.2% of the total U.S. steel imports, semi-finished exports are not large, and the U.S. Market exports steel products in China. The proportion is also decreasing.

But China may end up offering American consumers more steel products through global value chains than direct exports. For example, 60% of South Korea's steel imports come from China, and 12% of its steel exports to the United States, so if the United States imposes high tariffs on steel imports from South Korea, it will inevitably affect South Korea's steel imports from China. In order to maintain the global production chain, China should actively oppose unilateralism protectionism in the US.


How can chinese manufactures respond?

The high tariffs imposed by the United States on the steel and aluminium industry have little direct impact on China, but through global value chains and possible trade retaliation by other countries, as well as China's largest steel producer, the negative impact of the incident on China's steel and aluminium industry can not be underestimated.

In the face of global overcapacity and rising trade friction, the Chinese government will continue to emphasize capacity, especially for strip steel produced by low-quality small businesses. The rebound in metal prices will cover up the state of excess capacity, and make all kinds of strip steel production capacity resurgence, the government will inevitably stand firm to steel production capacity, or in the next few years due to trade wars led to a decline in demand for steel exports,the problem of overcapacity will become more prominent.

Trump's plan to impose high tariffs on steel and aluminium, and to take "no difference" treatment regardless of exemption from any country, has already sparked national discontent and is likely to trigger retaliation by the EU and other steel and aluminium exporters. When negotiating trade retaliation with other countries, China should adopt "different" and targeted opposition to U.S. unilateralism, avoid the expansion of trade war to hurt itself, and exert pressure on Trump through the U.S. steel and aluminum consumption industry, forcing the United States to give up tariff protection on steel and aluminum as soon as possible.



  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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