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2.Shell Making Workshop
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2.Shell Making Workshop

The procedure of shell making goes as follows:
1.Immerse the cluster of wax moulds into the surface coating paint;
2.Lift the cluster, wrap with quartz sand with diameter 40-70 meshes and submerge it in the induration water consisting of Ammonium Chloride for 10-20 minutes;
3.Hang it for drying for about 40 minutes;
4.Immerse it into the reinforce coating paint;
5.Wrap it with rough sand with diameter 20-40 meshes and submerge it in the induration water made of Magnesium Chloride for more than 50 minutes;
6.Hang it for drying for not more than 30 minutes;
The 4th and 5th steps should be repeated several times to reinforce the shell until the sand shell is strong enough. Ammonium The concentration of Ammonium Chloride is 17%-22%. The 1.0-1.1 densimeter is used to measure the density once a week. Magnesium Chloride is used for the induration of reinforce layer. The density is 1.22-1.24. The 1.2-1.3 densimeter is used to measure the density every three days.
Dewaxing: Lay the cluster with the sand shell on the floor for more than 12 hours before dewaxing so that the shell is firm enough. Hot water with 3-5% Ammonium Chloride and 0.15% industrial hydrochloric acid in it is used to get rid of the wax. Before dewaxing, the sand and the coating paint on the pouring basin and gate stick should be cleaned. Clusters of  moulds are put into the hanging basket and submerged into the hot water which is 95-98℃ hot. The dewaxing time varies from 30-50 minutes according to the required product technique. Get the gate stick out when the gate stick and the wax are separated. Raise the hanging basket and meanwhile shake the basket so that the water flows out of the shell and into the dewaxing basin. Next put the dewaxed moulds in a specified area in terms of steel designation. The basin is cleaned of sands and replaced with new dewaxing water every 10 days.



  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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