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In this year, the price of castings has been rising frequently.What factors will affect the price of investment casting?
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In this year, the price of castings has been rising frequently.What factors will affect the price of investment casting?

Views: 36     Author: fuchun casting     Publish Time: 2021-06-04      Origin: Site

In this year, the price of castings has been rising frequently. 

What factors will affect the price of investment casting?

Precision casting, also known as "lost wax casting" or "investment casting", has been widely used for hundreds of years, and it is well known that its components have excellent surface finish, dimensional accuracy and complex shape. This is particularly useful for making castings of complex shapes, where machining may not be possible or raw materials may be wasted for machining. For customers, cost is obviously one of the important factors in choosing investment casting suppliers. So what factors will affect the price of investment casting?


As we all know, more than 70% of the total cost of product development has been determined in the design stage, although the cost of investment casting in this stage is less than 7% of the total cost. Through simultaneous product and process design, more resources can be invested to detect and prevent potential manufacturing problems as soon as possible, which can significantly reduce the overall cost and lead time of investment casting. At the same time, in contact with most professional purchasing personnel, professional purchasing personnel hope to reduce the price of investment casting through the price fluctuation of raw materials. The price of investment casting is affected by the following aspects.


1. Cost of raw materials


The cost depends to some extent on the alloy steel. Among steel castings, stainless steel castings are very expensive. The material cost of stainless steel castings depends on the material grade. For the same material, the cost of investment casting may change at different times. Therefore, when the material cost is low, buyers will get cheap castings.

In recent days, iron and steel plants in East China have increased the purchase price of scrap steel by more than 300 yuan per ton. From the low point of this year(2021), the price of scrap steel has increased by more than 50%, reaching the highest point in history. Raw material prices continue to rise, but also let steel prices soar.


2. Casting cost


The productivity of the investment casting system is the percentage of the actual weight of the casting product in the weight of the whole casting system. Casting cost per unit weight is inversely proportional to production. The lower the productivity, the higher the cost.

For a specific investment casting, the output is equal to the total weight of the investment casting on the same tree, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the whole tree. It is related to the grouping scheme of investment casting structure and tree. It can range from 30% to 60%, most of which are between 40% and 50%. The lower the casting output, the higher the cost.




  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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