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What are the commonly used metal materials for processing? What are their characteristics?
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What are the commonly used metal materials for processing? What are their characteristics?

Views: 21     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2018-08-02      Origin: www.fuchun-casting.com

1, 45#  ----- high quality carbon structural steel, the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel.

Main features: the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel, good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability, easy to crack when water quenching. Small parts should be treated with quenching and tempering, and large parts should be treated with normalizing. Examples are mainly used for manufacturing high strength moving parts, such as turbine impeller and compressor piston. Shaft, gear, rack, worm and so on. The welds should be preheated before welding, and stress relieving after welding.


2, Q235A (A3 steel) ----- the most commonly used carbon structural steel.

Main features: high plasticity, toughness and weldability, cold stamping performance, as well as a certain strength, good cold bending performance. Application examples: widely used in general requirements of parts and welding structure. For example, tension rod, connecting rod, pin, shaft, screw, nut, ring, bracket, frame, building structure, bridge, etc.


3, 40Cr ----- one of the most widely used steels, belongs to alloy structural steel.

Main features: After quenching and tempering, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low-temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength when oil-cooled, easy to crack when water-cooled parts with complex shape, moderate cold-bending plasticity, good machinability after tempering or tempering, but not weldability. Good, easy to crack, before welding should be preheated to 100 ~ 150 degrees C, generally used in quenching and tempering state, but also for carbonitriding and high-frequency surface quenching treatment. Examples of applications: quenched and tempered parts for medium speed and medium load, such as machine tool gears, shafts, worms, spline shafts, thimble sleeves, etc., quenched and tempered and quenched at high frequencies for high hardness and wear-resistant parts such as gears, shafts, spindles, crankshafts, mandrels, sleeves, pins, connecting rods, screws and nuts, air intake Valves, after quenching and tempering, are used to manufacture heavy-duty, medium-speed impact parts, such as oil pump rotor, slider, gear, spindle, sleeve ring, etc. After quenching and tempering at low temperature, they are used to manufacture heavy-duty, low impact, wear-resistant parts, such as worm, spindle, shaft, sleeve ring and so on. Carbonitriding is a large size after manufacturing. Low temperature impact toughness parts such as shafts and gears.


4, HT150 ----- gray cast iron

Application examples: gear box, machine tool bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley, bearing cover, etc.


5, 35 ----- commonly used materials for various standard parts and fasteners.

Main features: suitable strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity and weldability. Local upsetting and drawing can be done under cold condition. Examples of low hardenability, normalizing or quenching and tempering applications: suitable for manufacturing small cross-section parts, can withstand greater load parts: such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, hook and ring, a variety of standard parts, fasteners.


6, 65Mn ----- commonly used spring steel.

Examples of applications: small size flat, circular springs, cushion springs, spring windings, can also be made into spring rings, valve springs, clutch springs, brake springs, cold coil spiral springs, clip springs, etc.


7, 0Cr18Ni9 ----- the most commonly used stainless steel (American steel number 304, Japan steel SUS304)

Characteristics and applications: As stainless steel heat-resistant most widely used, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, original industrial equipment.

metal materials




  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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