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What are the mechanical properties of steel?What are the indicators of steel performance?
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What are the mechanical properties of steel?What are the indicators of steel performance?

Views: 56     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2018-05-15      Origin: www.fuchun-casting.com

What are the mechanical properties of steel?

The properties of metal materials are generally divided into two categories: process performance and service performance.


Process performance refers to the mechanical properties of metal parts in the process of cold and hot processing. The processing capability of metal materials determines its adaptability in forming process. Because of the different processing conditions, the technological properties required are also different, such as casting properties, weldability, malleability, heat treatment performance, machinability, etc.


Service performance refers to the performance of metal materials under conditions of use, including mechanical properties, physical properties and chemical properties. The performance and service life of metal materials depend on its performance.


In the mechanical manufacturing industry, the general mechanical parts are used in the normal temperature, normal pressure and non strong corrosive medium, and in the process of use, the mechanical parts will bear different loads. The mechanical properties of metal materials under mechanical loads are called mechanical properties.


The mechanical properties of metallic materials are the main basis for designing and selecting parts. The mechanical properties of metal materials will be different depending on the load characteristics (such as tensile, compression, torsion, impact, cyclic load, etc.). Commonly used mechanical properties include strength, plasticity, hardness, impact toughness, multiple impact resistance and fatigue limit.



What are the indicators of steel performance?

1. Strength

Strength refers to the performance of metal materials under static loading to resist breakage (excessive plastic deformation or fracture). The strength of load is divided into tensile strength, compressive strength, bending strength, shear strength and so on, as the loading mode has the form of tensile, compression, bending and shearing. There is always a certain connection between various intensities. Generally speaking, tensile strength is used as the basic strength indicator.

2. Plasticity

The metal material has the ability to have permanent deformation without producing defects under the load. The plastic deformation occurs when the stress of the metal material exceeds the elastic limit and after the load is removed, the material is deformed when a part or full load is retained.

3. HardnessDo you know what the metal hardness is.pdf

Hardness is a pointer to the hardness of a metal material. At present, the most commonly used method of measuring hardness is the pressure entry hardness method. It is pressed into the surface of the metal material under a certain load with a certain geometry, and the hardness value of the material is measured according to the degree of pressure.

The usual methods are Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HRA, HRB, HRC) and Vivtorinox hardness (HV).

4. Fatigue

The strength, plasticity and hardness discussed above are the mechanical properties of metal under static loading. In fact, many machine parts work under cyclic loading. Under this condition, parts will produce fatigue.

5. Impact toughness

Metal materials resist the impact of the impact load and not to be destroyed. Toughness refers to the metal material under the action of tensile stress, before the fracture has a certain plastic deformation characteristics. Gold, aluminum and copper are tough materials. They are easily drawn into wires.



Why is the mechanical properties of the forgings often superior to the castings?

Because the compactness of the forgings is better than that of the castings.


The forgings are cast blank by repeated rolling, the density is high, the shrinkage cavity and shrinkage are rolled, and the columnar dendrites are broken, and the mechanical properties are eliminated.The casting is a product formed by molten metal pouring into the mold after solidification. The tissue is large, and the interior is pinky.


Therefore, the mechanical properties of the forgings are better than those of the castings.




  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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