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What 's the difference between Vertical Machining Center and Horizontal Machining Center?
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What 's the difference between Vertical Machining Center and Horizontal Machining Center?

Views: 25     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2018-08-03      Origin: www.fuchun-casting.com

There are two machining center forms, the horizontal and vertical. This refers to the main spindles orientation. Both the horizontal and vertical machining centers come in small, bench-mounted devices to a room-sized machine.

Horizontal Machining Center

Horizontal Machining Center refers to a machining center with a horizontal spindle and usually a rotary table with automatic indexing. It usually has 3-5 motion coordinates. It is common to add one rotation coordinate to three linear motion coordinates. It is most suitable for adding box type parts. Compared with the vertical machining center, the horizontal machining center is easy to discharge chips, which is advantageous to machining, but the structure is complex and the price is higher.


Horizontal machining centers have x – y table with cutter mounted on a horizontal arbor across the table. Most horizontal machining centers highlight a =15/-15 degree rotary table allowing one to mill at shallow angles. Horizontal machining centers are often used to mill grooves and slots. It may also be used to shape flat surfaces.

Vertical Machining Centers 

Vertical machining centers have its spindle axis vertically oriented. Its milling cutters are held in the spindle and it rotates on its axis. Generally, the spindle could be extended to allow plunge cuts and drilling, although the table could also be lowered or raised. The vertical machining centers have two subcategories. These categories are the bedmill and the turret mill.


Vertical machining center refers to a machining center with a vertical spindle and a rectangular worktable with no indexing rotation. It is suitable for machining plates, sleeves and plates. It generally has three straight-line coordinate axes and can be installed with a rotary table rotating along a horizontal axis on the worktable. It is used for machining spiral parts.


Vertical machining center is easy to install, easy to operate, easy to observe machining conditions, easy to debug procedures, widely used. However, due to the limitation of column height and tool changer, it is impossible to process too high parts. When machining cavity or concave surface, the chip is not easy to discharge. When it is serious, the tool will be damaged, the machined surface will be destroyed and the smooth processing will be affected.


Although they may be similar since both are machining centers, vertical and horizontal machining centers serve different purposes. Horizontal machining centers were first to appear to put milling tables under lathe-like headstocks. However, through the desire to change the angle of the horizontal machining centers, accessories such as add-on heads were created to convert the horizontal to vertical machining centers.


Horizontal machining centers work best with heavy work piece that needs machining on multiple sides. Die sinking on the other hand is best with vertical machining centers.


Sections of this article have been taken from www.buyusedmachinery.org / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_control



  • What is 'multiple certification'?

    This is where a batch of steel meets more than one specification or grade. It is a way of allowing melting shops to produce stainless steel more efficiently by restricting the number of different types of steel. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the steel can meet more than one grade within the same standard or across a number of standards. This also allows stockholders to minimise stock levels.

    For example, it is common for 1.4401 and 1.4404 (316 and 316L) to be dual certified - that is the carbon content is less than 0.030%. Steel certified to both European and US standards is also common.

  • What surface finishes are available on stainless steels?

    There are many different types of surface finish on stainless steel. Some of these originate from the mill but many are applied later during processing, for example polished, brushed, blasted, etched and coloured finishes.

    The importance of surface finish in determining the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel surface cannot be overemphasised. A rough surface finish can effectively lower the corrosion resistance to that of a lower grade of stainless steel.

  • Can I use stainless steel at high temperatures?

    Various types of stainless steel are used across the whole temperature range from ambient to 1100 deg C. The choice of grade depends on several factors:

    1. Maximum temperature of operation
    2. Time at temperature, cyclic nature of process
    3. Type of atmosphere, oxidising , reducing, sulphidising, carburising.
    4. Strength requirement

    In the European standards, a distinction is made between stainless steels and heat-resisting steels. However, this distinction is often blurred and it is useful to consider them as one range of steels.

    Increasing amounts of Chromium and silicon impart greater oxidation resistance. Increasing amounts of Nickel impart greater carburisation resistance.

  • Can I use stainless steel at low temperatures?

    Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used for service down to as low as liquid helium temperature (-269 deg C). This is largely due to the lack of a clearly defined transition from ductile to brittle fracture in impact toughness testing.

    Toughness is measured by impacting a small sample with a swinging hammer. The distance which the hammer swings after impact is a measure of the toughness. The shorter the distance, the tougher the steel as the energy of the hammer is absorbed by the sample. Toughness is measured in Joules (J). Minimum values of toughness are specified for different applications. A value of 40 J is regarded as reasonable for most service conditions.

    Steels with ferritic or martensitic structures show a sudden change from ductile (safe) to brittle (unsafe) fracture over a small temperature difference. Even the best of these steels show this behaviour at temperatures higher than -100 deg C and in many cases only just below zero.

    In contrast austenitic steels only show a gradual fall in the impact toughness value and are still well above 100 J at -196 deg C.

    Another factor in affecting the choice of steel at low temperature is the ability to resist transformation from austenite to martensite. 

  • Is stainless steel non-magnetic?

    It is commonly stated that “stainless steel is non-magnetic”. This is not strictly true and the real situation is rather more complicated. The degree of magnetic response or magnetic permeability is derived from the microstructure of the steel. A totally non-magnetic material has a relative magnetic permeability of 1. Austenitic structures are totally non-magnetic and so a 100% austenitic stainless steel would have a permeability of 1. In practice this is not achieved. There is always a small amount of ferrite and/or martensite in the steel and so permeability values are always above 1. Typical values for standard austenitic stainless steels can be in the order of 1.05 – 1.1. 

    It is possible for the magnetic permeability of austenitic steels to be changed during processing. For example, cold work and welding are liable to increase the amount of martensite and ferrite respectively in the steel. A familiar example is in a stainless steel sink where the flat drainer has little magnetic response whereas the pressed bowl has a higher response due to the formation of martensite particularly in the corners.

    In practical terms, austenitic stainless steels are used for “non-magnetic” applications, for example magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these cases, it is often necessary to agree a maximum magnetic permeability between customer and supplier. It can be as low as 1.004.

    Martensitic, ferritic, duplex and precipitation hardening steels are magnetic.

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